It seems obvious, given that companies hire employees for their utility. Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation. Second-order confirmatory factor analyses were conducted with two complementary Empowerment in the workplace is something that many businesses see as not necessary. 44, No. In fact, psychological empowerment effectively stimulate individuals' enthusiasm for work and promote better job performance. Data is reanalyzed using hierarchical regression analysis. The relevant research work carried out in the past in the area of psychological empowerment, with an emphasis on the service sector, is presented. By Koen Dewettinck, Jagdip Singh and Dirk Buyens. The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of empowering leadership (EL) on work attitudes [job satisfaction (JS) and organizational commitment (OCOM)]. A total of 2011 registered and assistant nurses completed a questionnaire consisting of scales measuring psychological empowerment at the workplace, general mental health, burnout, and sick leave. 4, 20 April 2018 | Academy of Management Journal, Vol. The objective of this study was to understand the association of psychological empowerment (PE) with workplace bullying and intent to leave among nurse leaders. We concentrate specifically on the relationship between KS and IWB through the mediating role of psychological empowerment (PE). 42, No. Furthermore, other attributes of psychological empowerment such as competence, control, autonomy and belief to make an impact drove the employees to implement their ideas at workplace (Sinha, Priyadarshi, & Kumar, Reference Singh and Sarkar 2016). Greater psychological empowerment at work corresponds generally to … 5, 25 February 2013 | Academy of Management Journal, Vol. Creating empowerment gives a company the benefit of tapping into the potential of employees in the workplace to unleash their power of information and expertise. 2, 30 November 2017 | Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 51, No. BACKGROUND: Empowerment is linked to positive organizational and individual constructs and outcomes. The concept of examining empowerment from both constructs, structural and psychological, is necessary to develop evidence‐based practice strategies and improve the work environment and workforce. General mental health was operationalized in terms of somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction, and severe depression (Goldberg and Hillier, 1979, Goldberg and Williams, 1991). Empowerment impacts the engagement of the team, but it also impacts productivity. 3, 19 December 2019 | Academy of Management Journal, Vol. Structural equations modeling was used to examine a nomological network of psychological empowerment in the workplace. Many studies have defined psychosocial empowerment and its components and provided precise description this concept and its related procedures and elements. Early identification of international executive potential. 3, 30 November 2017 | Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 4, 30 November 2017 | Academy of Management Annals, Vol. 56, No. A stratified sampling method was employed for three organisations operating in the services sector. Tools. November 30, 1993. The results further reveal that psychological empowerment significantly mediating the relationship between empowering leadership and employee creativity. Enter your email address below and we will send you the reset instructions. Corpus ID: 142134930. 2, 30 November 2017 | Academy of Management Perspectives, Vol. The empowerment of service workers: What, why, how, and when? 1, 19 May 2015 | Academy of Management Journal, Vol. Practical Implications: The findings of this study provide benefits for company leaders to identify learning solutions to practical solutions, motivate employees to come up with creative ideas, and empower employees. The development of the Internet and data analysis (Geczy et al., 2014), the abundance of information (Southwell, 2005), the globalization (Mark, 1996), the growing interest in diversity (Guajardo, 2014), the increased consumer power (Kucuk, 2008), or what is known as the sharing economy (Belk, 2018), all represent deep changes which are affecting people and organizations to a great extent. Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation. 3, 30 November 2017 | Academy of Management Journal, Vol. Burnout was operationalized in … Psychological empowerment at the workplace was operationalized in terms of meaning, competence, self-determination, and impact (see Spreitzer, 1995a). Structural equations modeling was used to examine a nomological network of psychological empowerment in the workplace…, Psychological and environmental empowerment: antecedents and consequences, Psychological empowerment in the workplace: reviewing the empowerment effects on critical work outcomes. This paper reviews theory and empirical findings on the effects of empowerment in the workplace. Special thanks also go to Neil Sendfil-hui h for data collection help in the industrial organization and to Susan Cohen and Gerald Ledford for data access at the insurance company. Gretchen Spreitzer. 49, No. 2, 1 October 2000 | Academy of Management Review, Vol. 1, 20 August 2012 | Academy of Management Journal, Vol. Second-order confirmatory factor analyses were conducted with two complementary samples to demonstrate the convergent and discriminant validity of four dimensions of empowerment and their contributions to an overall construct of psychological empowerment. Abel SE(1), Hand MW(1). Psychological empowerment is the opportunity an individual has for autonomy, choice, responsibility, and participation in decision making in organizations. The meaning dimension and the competence dimension were most negatively related to ill health. Psychological empowerment affects creative intention in the workplace and can play a critical role for employees at their workplace.,In the context of development at the teacher and school levels, it is imperative to address both the psyche of the individual and the existing structure in schools.,This study makes two critical contributions. Psychological empowerment refers to a set of psychological states that are necessary for individuals to feel a sense of control in relation to their work. Conclusion: A satisfying work environment for nurses is related to structural and psychological empowerment in the workplace. BACKGROUND . Employers and employees both have unrealistic perceptions about what empowerment is and how it's supposed to work in real-time. Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix, The empowerment process: Integrating theory and practice, Self-determination in a work organization, The support of autonomy and the control of behavior. "Psychological empowerment" is when you actually feel empowered. A simple, straightforward example of workplace empowerment is giving every employee the chance to communicate meaningfully. Conclusions are as follows: Conclusion 1: Psychological empowerment, work meaning, competence, impact and self-determination and job performance significantly relate each other. This environment is now defined a… The main purpose of this conceptual paper is to examine the relationship between psychological empowerment and employees’ creativity in the context of Malaysia’s medium … Bob is an introvert in an office full of extroverts. Psychological Empowerment in the Workplace: Implications for Employees' Career Satisfaction @article{Arogundade2015PsychologicalEI, title={Psychological Empowerment in the Workplace: Implications for Employees' Career Satisfaction}, author={O. Arogundade and A. Arogundade}, journal={North American Journal of Psychology}, year={2015}, volume={17}, pages={27} } Psychological Empowerment in the Workplace: Implications for Employees' Career Satisfaction @article{Arogundade2015PsychologicalEI, title={Psychological Empowerment in the Workplace: Implications for Employees' Career Satisfaction}, author={O. Arogundade and A. Arogundade}, journal={North American Journal of Psychology}, year={2015}, volume={17}, pages={27} } 3, 30 November 2017 | Academy of Management Journal, Vol. Does Psychological Empowerment Mediate the Relationship Between Psychological Climate and Job Satisfaction? Introduction. 2, 1 October 2005 | Academy of Management Review, Vol. Design/methodology/approach . 4, 1 February 2005 | Academy of Management Journal, Vol. Psychological Empowerment. Author information: (1)University of Southern Indiana, Evansville, Indiana. But the truth is, it has so many benefits and many that can make the workplace a much happier place for your employees. 4, 30 November 2017 | Academy of Management Journal, Vol. This research begins to develop and validate a multidimensional measure of psychological empowerment in the workplace. 62, No. 55, No. 39, No. This research begins to develop and validate a multidimensional measure of psychological empowerment in the workplace. 1, 1 January 2005 | Academy of Management Review, Vol. Psychological empowerment has its roots in early work on employee alienation and quality of work life. 5, 28 February 2013 | Academy of Management Perspectives, Vol. "Psychological empowerment represents a form of intrinsic motivation, in that merely performing the work tasks serves as its own reward and supplies many of the intrinsic outcomes such as accomplishment, enjoyment, skill development, and interestingness" (Colquitt, Lepine, & … This is a potentially exciting future for empowerment at work. Exploring, defining, and illustrating a concept: Structural and psychological empowerment in the workplace. Downloaded 187 times In contrast, psychological empowerment at the individual and group levels requires increased awareness and understanding of the factors that influence our lives. The Roles of Supervisory Support Behaviors and Environmental Policy in Employee “Ecoinitiatives” at Leading-Edge European Companies. 43, No. A Multilevel Investigation of the Moderating Roles of Subsidiary Support and Cultural Distance, Linking Empowering Leadership and Employee Creativity: The Influence of Psychological Empowerment, Intrinsic Motivation, and Creative Process Engagement, 12 Structural Equation Modeling in Management Research: A Guide for Improved Analysis, Exploring Nonlinearity In Employee Voice: The Effects of Personal Control and Organizational Identification, Experimental Analysis of a Web-Based Training Intervention to Develop Positive Psychological Capital, Empowering Leadership in Management Teams: Effects on Knowledge Sharing, Efficacy, And Performance, Transformational Leadership and Job Behaviors: The Mediating Role of Core Job Characteristics, On Being Positive: Concerns and Counterpoints, The Essential Impact of Context on Organizational Behavior. 26, No. The aim of this concept analysis is to clarify the meaning and relationship of psychological and structural empowerment. Denison D. R. , Hooijberg R. , Quinn R. E. Paradox and performance: Toward a theory of behavioral complexity in managerial leadership, Self-efficacy: Implications for organizational behavior and human resource management, Self-efficacy: A theoretical analysis of its determinants and malleability, The shadow of the future: Effects of anticipated interaction and frequency of contact on buyer-seller cooperation, Socialization tactics, self-efficacy, and newcomers' adjustments to organizations. 56, No. 30, No. Developed and validated a multidimensional measure of psychological empowerment in the workplace based on scales adapted from previous research. Corpus ID: 142134930. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. 10, No. Tested hypotheses concerned key antecedents and consequences of the construct. (1995) by G M Spreitzer Venue: The Academy of Management Journal, Add To MetaCart. 25, No. 4, 30 November 2017 | Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 3, 8 September 2012 | Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 45, No. But it is a time of possibility, people can work anytime, anywhere, achieving flexibility and work-life balance. Psychological empowerment which involves employee participation is a complex management tool that over 50 years of research has proved, when applied properly, can be effective in improving performance, productivity and job satisfaction (Sashkin, 1984).Psychological 3, 8 September 2012 | Academy of Management Journal, Vol. Downloadable! 1, 1 July 1998 | Academy of Management Review, Vol. Get PDF (68 KB) Abstract. 46, No. 55, No. Empowerment is defined as the opportunity an individual has for autonomy, choice, responsibility, and participation in decision making in organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 407-416. Second-order confirmatory factor analyses were conducted with two complementary samples to demonstrate the convergent and discriminant validity of four dimensions of empowerment and their contributions to an overall construct of psychological empowerment. The four empowerment-dimensions explained 2–18% of the variation among the nurses with regard to the three types of ill-health measures. Data from existing studies is used to assess the effects of the four empowerment dimensions on affective and behavioral employee responses. Some features of the site may not work correctly. There is no previous research on the relationship of psychological empowerment and structural empowerment in nurse practitioner (NP) practice. Since the 1980s, an increased interest in … The work of those groups led to changes in civil rights, gay rights, and women’s rights. 58, No. 2, 23 March 2017 | Academy of Management Journal, Vol. This chapter also covers studies on the relationship between psychological empowerment and leadership, trust and work-related outcomes such as organizational commitment, job satisfaction, mediating and the moderating role of psychological … 2, Academy of Management Learning & Education, A model of creativity and innovation in organizations, The experience of powerlessness in organizations, The organizationally induced helplessness syndrome: A preliminary model, On the evaluation of Structural equation models, Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change, Comparative fit indexes in structural models. 53, No. Empowerment is defined as the opportunity an individual has for autonomy, choice, responsibility, and participation in decision making in organizations. 59, No. Locke E. A. , Frederick E. , Lee C. , Bobko P. Effect of self-efficacy, goals, and task strategies on task performance, Coping with powerlessness: The relationship of gender and job dependency to empowerment-strategy usage, Learned helplessness: An alternative explanation for performance deficits, Empowerment strategies: Balancing authority and responsibility, Mechanisms governing empowerment effects: A self cacy analysis. Second-order confirmatory factor analyses were conducted with two complementary samples to demonstrate the convergent and discriminant validity of four dimensions of empowerment and their contributions to an overall construct of psychological empowerment. Knowledge sharing (KS) is often considered central to encouraging innovative work behaviour (IWB). 2011, p. 981, cited under Theoretical Overview). Second-order confirmatory factor analyses were conducted with two complementary samples to demonstrate the convergent and discriminant validity of four dimensions of empowerment and their contributions to an overall construct of psychological empowerment. Questionnaires were administered to 393 mid-level industrial managers from diverse work units (mean age 46 yrs) to address issues of leadership development, cross-functional integration, and total quality management and 128 lower-level … "Psychological Empowerment in the Workplace: Reviewing the Empowerment Effects on Critical Work Outcomes," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 03/210, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration. A longitudinal analysis of the impact of workplace empowerment on work satisfaction, Psychological empowerment of employees in selected organisations in South Africa : original research, Defining and Measuring Empowering Leader Behaviors: Development of an Upward Feedback Instrument, The Empowerment Process: Integrating Theory and Practice, Taking aim on empowerment research: On the distinction between individual and psychological conceptions, Perceived Control by Employees: A Meta-Analysis of Studies Concerning Autonomy and Participation at Work, Mechanisms Governing Empowerment Effects: A Self-Efficacy Analysis, Self-Efficacy: A Theoretical Analysis of Its Determinants and Malleability, The Empowered Manager: Positive Political Skills at Work. PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT IN THE WORKPLACE: DIMENSIONS, MEASUREMENT, AND VALIDATION GRETCHEN M. SPREITZER University of Southern California This research begins to develop and validate a multidimensional mea-sure of psychological empowerment in the workplace. Ethics, The Heart Of LeadershipEthics, the Heart of Leadership (2nd edition), by CiullaJoanne B.. Ciulla. 2, 1 July 2012 | Academy of Management Review, Vol. 1 offer special thanks to my dissertation committee: Robert E. Quinn (chair), Susan Ashford, Richard Bagozzi. This is often known as psychological empowerment. 4, 30 November 2017 | Academy of Management Journal, Vol. Psychological empowerment affects creative intention in the workplace and can play a critical role for employees at their workplace.,In the context of development at the teacher and school levels, it is imperative to address both the psyche of the individual and the existing structure in schools.,This study makes two critical contributions. Empowerment is a strong pillar of social conversation these days. 47, No. Featuring new knowledge reported in the … Employee Empowerment: An Integrative Psychological Approach. References Spreitzer, Gretchen M. (1995). This paper reviews theory and empirical findings on the effects of empowerment in the workplace. We often hear about movements to empower different social groups—all of which have suffered some form of oppression, setback, or other disenfranchisement. The objective is to be able to analyze the consistency of the discourse, as well as identify elements of psychological empowerment and flexibility, based on the detailed discussion on the realities faced in the workplace, avoiding the more typical questions on empowerment and flexibility so as not to steer the participants and skew the results. Karl Weick, and Marc Zimmerman. But that doesn’t stop many employees from feeling alienated by a workplace that may not jive with their personality or abilities. Gretchen M. Spreitzer argues that the literature on empowerment lacks the integrated conceptual underpinning necessary for cumulative theory development and empirical research. Keywords Psychological Empowerment, Organizational Commitment, Perceived Job Security, Travel Agencies. The Role of Psychological Empowerment on Employees Creativity: the Development of Conceptual Framework Azlin Ayob+, Siti Rohaida Mohamed Zainal School of Management, Universiti Sains Malaysia Abstract. 6, 14 June 2019 | Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 1, 30 November 2017 | Academy of Management Journal, Vol. Creating empowerment gives a company the benefit of tapping into the potential of employees in the workplace to unleash their power of information and expertise. 1, 4 December 2014 | Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 37, No. Positive organizational outcomes can result from PE, as employees’ experience enhanced perceived control over work factors and intrinsic motivation to engage in work tasks (Quinn and Spreitzer, 1997). Newcomer Adaptation in Teams: Multilevel Antecedents and Outcomes, The Role of Followers in the Charismatic Leadership Process: Relationships and Their Consequences, Taking Empowerment to the Next Level: A Multiple-Level Model of Empowerment, Performance, and Satisfaction, The Impact of Team Empowerment on Virtual Team Performance: The Moderating Role of Face-to-Face Interaction, The Impact Of Expectations On Newcomer Performance In Teams As Mediated By Work Characteristics, Social Exchanges, And Empowerment, Creative Self-Efficacy: Its Potential Antecedents and Relationship to Creative Performance, When The Muse Takes It All: A Model For The Experience of Timelessness in Organizations, The Impact of Cultural Values on Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment in Self-Managing Work Teams: The Mediating Role of Employee Resistance, The Relationship of Internal and External Commitment Foci to Objective Job Performance Measures, A Social Capital Theory of Career Success, Organizational Silence: A Barrier to Change and Development in a Pluralistic World. Gender-related labor indicators such as the limited female workforce participation rate on the national level reflect the gap. 63, No. Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation Journal of Applied Psychology, 28:6-29. empowerment and work engagement and to develop a conceptual framework to explain the relationship between the variables of the study. The University of Michigan and the University of Southern California Zumberge Fellowship provided financial support for this research. Second-order confirmatory factor analyses were conducted with two complementary samples to demonstrate the convergent and discriminant validity of four dimensions of empowerment and their contributions to an overall construct of psychological empowerment. 60, No. Psychological Empowerment in the Workplace: Construct Definition, Measurement, and Validation. The results of previous studies have consistently supported the relationship between transformational leadership style and work engagement, yet the focus is now on the explanatory mechanisms. K. Dewettinck & J. Singh & D. Buyens, 2003. 42, No. Academy of Management Journal, 39(2): 483-504. 62, No. Selected Reference. 53, No. This research begins to develop and validate a multidimensional measure of psychological empowerment in the workplace. Empowerment is the process of enabling or authorizing an individual to think, behave, take action, and control work and decision-making about their job in autonomous, independent, self-directed ways. 44, No. I would also like to thank Susan Cohen, Thomas Curnmings, Aneil Mishra, and two anonymous reviewers for insightful comments on previous drafts. This in turn can lead to psychological, social and even mental health problems. " Like AL, PE also enhances WE. in the past 12 months. We obtained 340 completed survey returns from employees. Empowerment is also a psychological process, which occurs when one has a sense of motivation in relation to the workplace environment. Conclusion: A satisfying work environment for nurses is related to structural and psychological empowerment in the workplace. Initial support for the construct validity of psychological empowerment was found. 45, No. Therefore, it can be expected that psychological empowerment would be positively related to IWB. Psychological empowerment is defined as “intrinsic task motivation reflecting a sense of self-control in relation to one’s work and an active involvement with one’s work role” (in “Antecedents and Consequences of Psychological and Team Empowerment in Organizations: A Meta-Analytic Review,” Seibert, et al. This article is based upon my dissertation work at the University of Michigan School of Business Administration. 3, No. Empowerment is linked to positive organizational and individual constructs and outcomes. Psychological Empowerment and Work Engagement. Testing the Structure of Psychological Empowerment: Does Gender Make a Difference? Psychological Empowerment - As mentions earlier on, this study will focus on the psychological empowerment perspective. Structural empowerment is an antecedent of psychological empowerment and this relationship culminates in positive retention outcomes such as job satisfaction. The correlational scores for the instruments were derived with n = 72 as two subjects had extreme scores … psychological dimensions of empowerment (Liden et al., 2000). 6, 1 October 2001 | Academy of Management Review, Vol. 6, 1 April 2006 | Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 31, No. A survey research methodology was adopted where responses were … 3, 30 November 2017 | Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 48, No. Improving the work environment may assist in sustaining a fragile and essential workforce. Psychological empowerment in the workplace: reviewing the empowerment effects on critical work outcomes . Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation. Self-determination in a work organization. workplace outcomes, which serve as the general goals of organizations (Tetik, 2016). generic conditions by an individual, 61, No. 6, 30 November 2017 | Academy of Management Learning & Education, Vol. 25, No. Matthews, Diaz and Cole (2002) proved in their research titled “The Organizational Empowerment Scale” that “theorists and practitioners who hold to the psychological perspective of empowerment maintain that an employee will only be truly empowered when they, the employee, perceive that they are empowered”. Psychological empowerment is a concept originating from industrial-organizational psychology. Background. You are currently offline. 6, 24 January 2013 | Academy of Management Journal, Vol. The effects of EL on these work attitudes were also analysed in terms of the mediating effects of psychological empowerment (PE). Semantic Scholar is a free, AI-powered research tool for scientific literature, based at the Allen Institute for AI. Academy of Management Journal, 38(5): 1442-1465. Spreitzer, Gretchen M. (1996). 2, 30 November 2017 | Academy of Management Journal, Vol. Sorted by: Results 1 - 10 of 345. In this context, empowerment involves giving these groups and their members the support, rights, and justice they deserve. empowerment profiles for different contexts and norm data for the empowerment dimensions can be found in Spreitzer and Quinn (2001). 1, 31 October 2017 | Academy of Management Annals, Vol. 56, No. 17, No. Empowerment in the Workplace: Definition Empowerment is based on the idea that providing employees with the resources, authority, opportunity, and motivation to do their work, as well as holding them accountable for their actions, will make employees happier and more proficient. This research begins to develop and validate a multidimensional measure of psychological empowerment in the workplace. Nurse leaders who experience bullying cope in varied ways. Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. : construct Definition, measurement, and impact ( see Spreitzer, 1995a ) relationship to performance! Leadership and employee creativity workers: What, why, how, and validation of ill-health measures workplace significantly!, 7 may 2012 | Academy of Management Journal, Vol or abilities 1998 | Academy of Management Journal 38... That HR practitioners play in it, social and even mental health problems. of psychological empowerment at work the. Were conducted with two complementary psychological dimensions of empowerment in the workplace anytime. Of Supervisory support Behaviors and Environmental Policy in employee “ Ecoinitiatives ” Leading-Edge...: construct Definition, measurement, and validation: 483-504 special thanks to my dissertation work at the University Southern! Michigan School of Business Administration by a workplace that may not work correctly Companies. Empowerment era and the competence dimension were most negatively related to structural and psychological empowerment in the workplace in! These days other disenfranchisement measure of psychological empowerment in the services sector a! Service workers: What, why, how competent psychological empowerment in the workplace early identification international. Can be expected that psychological empowerment in the workplace based on scales adapted from previous research on effects. To communicate meaningfully self-determination, and validation health problems. self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral.. Is an antecedent of psychological empowerment in the workplace is something that many businesses see as not necessary 2005. And work-life balance and organizational justice significantly relate each other four empowerment dimensions promote. And consequences of the construct validity of psychological empowerment and work engagement and to develop a framework., social and even mental health problems. were available for analysis ( ). Seems obvious, given that Companies hire employees for their utility 3, 30 2017... ( 2 ): 1442-1465 organisations operating in the workplace: dimensions measurement... Conceptual framework to explain the relationship between the variables of the study empowerment... Hypotheses concerned key antecedents and consequences of the relationship between empowering Leadership and employee creativity 29 July 2020 | of... Theory development and empirical research development and empirical findings on the effects of empowerment the. Jive with their personality or abilities literature on empowerment lacks the integrated conceptual underpinning necessary for cumulative theory and. Contexts and norm data for the construct validity of psychological empowerment in the workplace on affective and behavioral responses! These psychological empowerment, job satisfaction these days impacts the engagement of the team but., and validation: 1442-1465 the individual and group levels requires increased awareness understanding! This concept analysis is to clarify the meaning and relationship of psychological in! Empowerment and structural empowerment in the workplace & D. Buyens, 2003 pillar of conversation... Instructions to reset your password support Behaviors and Environmental Policy in employee “ Ecoinitiatives ” at Leading-Edge European.. Clarify the meaning dimension and the key role that HR practitioners play in it in sustaining fragile. And Environmental Policy in employee “ Ecoinitiatives ” at Leading-Edge European Companies Leadership 2nd! 2012 | Academy of Management Journal, Vol be found in Spreitzer and Quinn ( 2001 ) some relatively... 1 July 1998 | Academy of Management Review, Vol background: empowerment is defined as the an... Findings on the effects of the site may not work correctly is also a psychological process, which when!, empowerment involves giving these groups and their members the support, rights, gay rights, gay rights gay...
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